The Bone Dagger Discovery

Written by Anna Hiller, Curatorial Assistant

MVZ 149262, the original Cassowary specimen, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

MVZ 149262, the original Cassowary specimen, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

A few weeks ago Carla Cicero (Staff Curator of Birds) and I pulled a Cassowary skeleton (Casuarius bennetti hecki) to send a humerus to a researcher for sectioning. Since the Cassowary is an example of a primitive flightless bird (ratite), their bones contain important clues to bird evolution and potential ancestral characteristics. We soon discovered that the specimen (MVZ Bird 149262) was only a partial skeleton, with a sternum and pelvis that were bleached and worn (see photo at right). In addition, the skeleton box contained two humeri that were yellow, carved out, and clearly not from the same bird (see photos below). The carved out bones looked almost like some kind of man-made implement.

Examples of un-altered Cassowary Humeri, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

Examples of un-altered Cassowary humeri, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

The two carved humeri found in the skeleton box, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

The two carved humeri found in the skeleton box (Cassowary bone daggers), 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

We proceeded to show the carved bones to people around the MVZ. To me they looked like salad tongs, but Michelle Koo (GIS and Bioinformatics Specialist) suggested that maybe they were used for medicinal purposes. Chris Conroy (Staff Curator of Mammals) was closest when he said that they looked like ‘tools.’ We went to the MVZ Bird Collection catalog card and indeed the skeleton contained a note of 2 ‘tools’ (see photo below). Because the sternum and pelvis were picked up by Alden Miller (MVZ Director and Curator of Birds, 1939 – 1965) on 21 October 1962, we also looked at Miller’s original field catalog and journal to see if we could get more information. His catalog didn’t mention the tools, and unfortunately the journal page is missing for that day. So we may never know where these tools actually came from.

Note found on the MVZ Catalog Card for the Cassowary, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

Note found on the MVZ Catalog Card for the Cassowary, 24 September 2014, by Anna Hiller

However, out of curiosity, Carla went to our trusty friend Google and typed in ‘Cassowary Bone Tools’… and found tons of photos that looked just like the specimen! The two tools are actually Cassowary bone daggers. They were used in Papua New Guinea for hunting and ceremonial purposes.  Yet another exciting day in curatorial! You never quite know what treasures are hidden in the depths of MVZ…

Carla Cicero (left) and Anna Hiller (right) with the now-identified Cassowary Bone Daggers, 1 October 2014.

Carla Cicero (left) and Anna Hiller (right) with the now-identified Cassowary bone daggers, 1 October 2014.

Related Links:

http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MVZ:Bird:149262

 

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Photo retakes – landscapes and time

Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley, California, 1890s, probably taken by Andrew C. Lawson

Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley, California, 1890s, probably taken by Andrew C. Lawson

I recently came across a print that led me down an interesting visual history of the MVZ’s own backyard. The photo is of Strawberry Creek Canyon in Berkeley, California and it was taken by Oliver P. Pearson in 1996. The photo notes mention that the photo is a retake of MVZ Img 7083. When I pulled up MVZ Img 7083, I was delighted to see that the notes describe the photo as being a retake of MVZ Img 7051. So in essence, these three photos document Strawberry Hill over 100 years.

Photo retake of MVZ Img 7051, Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley, CA , 1935 July 26, Stuart Wood Grinnell, MVZ Img 7083.

Photo retake of MVZ Img 7051, Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley, CA , 1935 July 26, Stuart Wood Grinnell, MVZ Img 7083.

This only demonstrates the power of metadata. This level of cataloging ensures that we can make these types of connections and discoveries possible.

Photo retake information does not fit nicely in most metadata schemas but it is an important visual tool in capturing changes. We sometimes receive rich metadata with images but fitting those data in existing schemas can be like fitting a square peg in a round hole. Is it feasible to make rich metadata structured? I think it warrants discussion, if nothing else, to make these kinds of connections more dynamic.

Retake of #7083, Strawberry Creek Canyon, Berkeley California, 1996 March, by Oliver P. Pearson.

Retake of #7083, Strawberry Creek Canyon, Berkeley California, 1996 March, by Oliver P. Pearson.

You can view more MVZ photo retakes on the MVZ’s Grinnell Resurvey Project. Both the Yosemite and Lassen sites have galleries of photo retakes.

Additionally, if you are interested in citizen science approaches to photo retakes, I highly recommend the Alpine of the Americas Project. This project aims to provide climate scientists with photo retakes that document changes in our watersheds.

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One Last Project at the MVZ: The Jim Patton Slides

Written by Jesse Dutton-Kenny, former Volunteer and Intern at MVZ Archives and now Graduate Student Assistant at University of Colorado Museum of Natural History

Recently we posted a blog about the charming inscriptions we find in publication reprints, one of which,  from Bob Stebbins, read: “To MVZ – the institution that made my life whole.” When I saw that inscription while working with our reprint collection, I felt a slight twinge of sadness knowing I would soon be leaving the MVZ and that it was the institution that set me on my current path academically and professionally. I began volunteering at the MVZ in my sophomore year at Berkeley (2010) before we had our full fledged and bustling Archives and before I knew what I wanted to do with my degree. I was working on a project to enter the data from thousands of scanned MVZ Images into Arctos and then to georeference the localities of those photos. This project lasted well over a year, and through this somewhat tedious data entry I really began to learn what museum work is all about. I got to hunt down field notes, look at specimens, and browse old maps all in the interest of improving photographic data. I got to examine lantern slides, glass negatives and yellowing old prints – something I had never been exposed to, and it struck a chord in me. It’s safe to say that this experience at the MVZ set me on the path that has now led me to pursue a master’s degree in Museum and Field Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Still far from being a zoologist, even after years at the MVZ, I’ll be studying anthropology collections management.

Jim Patton collecting traps filled with Oligoryzomys macrotis near Miranda, left bank Rio Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil, August 17, 1991. MVZ Image Number 14743

Jim Patton collecting traps filled with Oligoryzomys macrotis, near Miranda, left bank Rio Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil, August 17, 1991. MVZ Image Number 14743.

When I graduated from Berkeley last year I began volunteering in the Archives and working on all kinds of projects, from rehousing those same photographs I worked with years ago to creating supplies budgets. This experience helped expose me to the kind of museum work we all do in archives and museums – wearing the “many hats.” The final project I’ve been working on before I leave for Boulder has been to process the 35mm slide collection of Jim Patton, our emeritus curator of mammals extraordinaire. Jim is an incredible individual. He has tens of thousands of specimens deposited at the MVZ and has been working here for 45 years as both a faculty member and curator. One could go on about his numerous accomplishments to mammalogy and his importance to the MVZ in particular, but you can also read about Jim’s career at length here.

His slides arrived at the Archives beautifully housed and already scanned (thanks Jim!) so what I’ve been focusing on is “massaging” all the data associated with the images and then entering and organizing all that data in Archivists’ Toolkit and our collections database, Arctos. Through this data processing I’ve been able to link photos of specimens to specimen records, create Arctos “projects” for Jim’s work (such as his work on pocket mice and pocket gophers), and upload over 2000 new images into our database. Incidentally, as a part of linking Jim’s specimen accession data to the media, I was also able to update and improve the data on nearly a hundred specimen accession records (a very positive and unintended consequence of the archival work). However, the real value of this project for me as a student in this field has been to see what data collection and archival work can be like when the person whose collection you’re working on is sitting only a few offices away. I’ve been able to turn to Jim with questions about dates and look through his field notes with his guidance.

Jim Patton as “teacher and researcher.” Here, Dr. Patton describes differences between similar Sagebrushes under one of few Pines. 3 km NE of Chilcoot, California, 15 September 1985, by Jacek Purat. MVZ Image Number 11610.

Jim Patton as “teacher and researcher.” Here, Dr. Patton describes differences between similar Sagebrushes under one of few Pines. 3 km NE of Chilcoot, California, 15 September 1985, by Jacek Purat. MVZ Image Number 11610.

This is pretty rare and such a different experience than anyone else’s collections that I’ve worked with. So much of what we do is historical and gathering data through heavy research, but this has been an education in more contemporary archival work and data collection as opposed to recovery. I’ve been so pleased to get to work with the photographs of someone of Jim’s caliber and to end my time at the MVZ (for now at least) on such a productive and fulfilling project.

Thanks to the whole Archives team and the MVZ staff for helping to make my life whole and getting my museum career started these past 4 years. I’m sure I’ll be benefitting from everything I learned here for years to come.

Related Links:

Link to Archives blog about inscriptions: http://mvzarchives.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/519/

PDF of “Pattonfest” (394 pages): http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/hoekstra/PDFs/Pattonfest.pdf

Link to Jim’s Project in Arctos: http://arctos.database.museum/project/chromosomal-and-molecular-evolution-of-pocket-mice-genus-chaetodipus-and-pocket-gophers-of-the-thomomys-bottaeumbrinustownsendii-complex

 

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The Red Fox Population of the Sacramento Valley: Artifact of Manifest Destiny or Endemic Anomaly? Part III

Written by Alessandra J. Moyer, fourth year, Integrative Biology

Part III: Patwin

In the 1920s and 30s, when Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale in the MVZ were puzzling over the Sacramento Valley red foxes, there was no way to adequately determine the true origin of the unusual population.  But the unanswered question was not forgotten…

Recently, with molecular techniques unimaginable in Grinnell’s time, Dr. Benjamin Sacks and coworkers at UC Davis reexamined the story of the red fox.  They looked at museum specimens, including the MVZ holotype, as well as modern specimens for each of the native West Coast groups (Southern Cascades, Northern Cascades, Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada), as well as the Sacramento Valley group, the San Joaquin Valley group, and a selection of Eurasian red foxes.  The San Joaquin Valley group was known to be nonnative, derived from Alaskan and Canadian stock brought to California for fur farming.  The scientists looked at sequences of DNA isolated from the specimens to determine which groups were most related to each other and to estimate the effective size of the populations.  What they discovered was that the Sacramento Valley population was most closely related to the native Sierra Nevada population (Vulpes vulpes necator), even though it is most geographically close to the exotic San Joaquin population.  They found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the Sacramento Valley population was derived from European stock that was transferred to California from the Midwest in the 19th century (“North American Montane” 1536).

The authors of the study felt that the Sacramento Valley population, though genetically closely related to the Sierra Nevada population, shows such substantial differences from the montane population in terms of ecology that it should be considered its own subspecies.  They proposed that the red fox of the Sacramento Valley be called Vulpes vulpes patwin.  “Patwin” is the term used to refer to several Native American tribes that formerly inhabited the Sacramento Valley.

The findings of this study are significant for conservation because V. v. patwin is now considered a separate, native subspecies with a population size small enough and fragile enough to warrant a designation of “California State Species of Special Concern.”  Its rural grassland habitat is also in jeopardy, as it continues to be converted to irrigated agricultural land (“Native Sac. Val. red fox” 2).  The native foxes’ preference for arid grasslands shows an important difference between the patwin subspecies and non-native red foxes in California.  Exotic foxes, which frequently do make their dens in wetlands, can be a threat to endangered ground-nesting birds.

Skull of Vulpes vulpes patwin (MVZ Mammal #33550) collected by Sam Lamme on November 7, 1923, from Colusa County, California.

Skull of Vulpes vulpes patwin (MVZ Mammal #33550) collected by Sam Lamme on November 7, 1923, from Colusa County, California.

Now that the Sacramento Valley population has been designated its own subspecies, the the skin and skull of the young male fox at the MVZ is officially a holotype.  His arrival at the museum back in 1923 prompted an investigation into his kind that has only just been concluded.  And, in fact, questions still remain.  In their report to the California Department of Fish and Game, Sacks, Wittmer, and Statham bring up the uneasy relationship between coyotes and red foxes.  Generally, the presence of coyotes discourages the presence of red foxes.  In recent times, the Sacramento Valley red foxes seem to have found some protection from coyotes by living in the vicinity of human-built structures and domestic dogs (“Native Sac. Val. red fox” 17).  The authors open the question of how, historically, this red fox population dealt with coyotes.  They suggest that while dogs associated with Native American groups may have provided some protection, this ecological dynamic may be a reason why the Sacramento Valley subspecies is larger on average than the Sierra Nevada subspecies.  As always, more studies are needed.

References:

Sacks, Benjamin N., et al. “North American montane red foxes: expansion, fragmentation, and the origin of the Sacramento Valley red fox.” Conservation Genetics 11.4 (2010): 1523-1539. Springer Netherlands. Web. 6 July 2014.

Sacks, Benjamin N., Heiko U. Wittmer, Mark J. Statham. The Native Sacramento Valley red fox. Report to the California Department of Fish and Game. 2010. Web. 6 July 2014. <http://foxsurvey.ucdavis.edu/documents/30May2010_FinalReport_ForDistribution.pdf&gt;

“Sacramento Valley Fox Survey.” UC Davis. U of CA, 12 Dec. 2013. Web. 6 July 2014.

Related Links:

You can see UC Davis’s Sacramento Valley Fox Survey page here, including details about Phase II of the survey, which is currently in progress: http://foxsurvey.ucdavis.edu/

 

 

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The Red Fox Population of the Sacramento Valley: Artifact of Manifest Destiny or Endemic Anomaly? Part II

Written by Alessandra J. Moyer, fourth year, Integrative Biology

Part II: A Wild West hypothesis

In November 1923, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology received a red fox specimen from the Sacramento Valley. This specimen represented a population that was previously unknown to the MVZ scientists and was greeted with deep curiosity, particularly by Joseph Grinnell and Joseph Dixon, who endeavored to learn more about the unique group of Vulpes vulpes.  Their obvious fascination with the Colusa County red foxes was probably due to the fact that the previously recognized native populations of red foxes on the West Coast were all alpine species, living in the mountains of the Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevadas, and the Rockies.  And yet here was an isolated population living in the arid plains of the Sacramento Valley!

“Tail of red fox,” November 7, 1923, photographed by Joseph Dixon, MVZ Image No. 4045.

“Tail of red fox,” November 7, 1923, photographed by Joseph Dixon, MVZ Image No. 4045.

Grinnell, Dixon, and Jean Linsdale wrote Fur-Bearing Mammals of California: Their Natural History, Systematic Status and Relations to Man in 1937, and the mysterious red foxes of the plains were still on their minds.  They had an idea about where the anomalous population might have come from, a hypothesis that was elaborated upon by Aryan I. Roest in his 1977 paper “Taxonomic Status of the Red Fox in California.”  Starting in colonial times, and according to Roest, continuing through the Civil War era, English immigrants and their descendents actively imported red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) from Europe to the American colonies on the East Coast in order to continue the British tradition of hunting foxes for sport.  The introduced fox stock was brought along as settlers spread westward beyond the Mississippi.  In 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed, facilitating the transport of settlers from the Midwest who were drawn by the lingering prospect of gold as well as cheap and plentiful land in the West.  Roest speculates that this new form of transportation also encouraged settlers to bring sport-hunting foxes with them to their new homes in California. (Now of course, the idea of jodhpur- and boot-clad would-be aristocrats hunting foxes in the state where it is illegal to own a ferret seems absurd, but in fact it’s still a thing! See http://www.losaltoshounds.org/, if you really want to.)  From there, of course, the thought was that some number of these introduced foxes made their home in the Sacramento Valley, happily hunting and mating until such a substantial population had been established that they could be regularly hunted for fur.

Red fox distribution map from Fur-bearing Mammals of California: Their Natural History, Systematic Status, and Relations to Man (1937), Volume II, page 382, by Joseph Grinnell, Joseph Dixon, and Jean Linsdale.

Red fox distribution map from Fur-bearing Mammals of California: Their Natural History, Systematic Status, and Relations to Man (1937), Volume II, page 382, by Joseph Grinnell, Joseph Dixon, and Jean Linsdale.

The alternative explanation was that the population was native, separated at some point in the past from the indigenous montane population of the Sierra Nevadas.  Grinnell and friends felt that this explanation was unlikely and ended their discussion of the Sacramento Valley population as follows: “To sum up, then, there is a well-established population of red foxes at an unexpectedly low altitude, less than 350 ft. above sea level, in the upper Sacramento Valley.  These foxes have been there at least forty years; but whether they are thoroughly native or were introduced by the white man is not known.  The latter is the more likely surmise” (Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale 386).

At the time that Fur-bearing Mammals was published, scientific techniques that could shed light on the history of the Sacramento Valley population did not exist, and the origin of the ancestors of the MVZ holotype remained enigmatic.  Recently, DNA analyses have been able to once again take a stab at deciphering the origin of this enigmatic red fox.  The conclusions reached by the most recent study, and the resulting implications, will be discussed in the next post.

References

Grinnell, Joseph, Joseph Scattergood Dixon, Jean Myron Linsdale.  Fur-bearing Mammals of California: Their Natural History, Systematic Status, and Relations to Man. Vol. 2. Berkeley: U of California P, 1937. Print.

Roest, Aryan I. “Taxonomic Status of the Red Fox in California”. California Department of Fish and Wildlife Data Portal. Oct. 1977. Web. 18 May 2014.

Los Altos Hounds’ Website. Los Altos Hounds. Web. 19 May 2014.

Related Links:

The Arctos specimen record

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The Red Fox Population of the Sacramento Valley: Artifact of Manifest Destiny or Endemic Anomaly? Part I

Written by Alessandra J. Moyer, fourth year, Integrative Biology

Part I: The holotype

Holotype:

The single specimen (except in the case of a hapantotype,q.v.) designated or otherwise fixed as the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies when the nominal taxon is established (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, glossary).

Vulpes vulpes patwin holotype (skin), MVZ mammal #33550.

Vulpes vulpes patwin holotype (skin), MVZ mammal #33550.

The pale red fox skin is soft and supple, beautiful enough to grace the shoulders of any prominent society lady in 1920s California.  In fact, his sibling did become a fashion accessory, but this little fox had a more unique fate.  He is a holotype in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley.  His skin and skull are kept with the museum’s other mammal holotypes, or specimens that were specifically used in the formal definition of a new taxonomic group.

This little guy was collected in 1923, but his subspecies didn’t get a name until 2009.  Why the wait?  Well, nothing about this fox’s story is simple.  His tale is recorded in a letter from Sam Lamme, a trapper who regularly sent bird specimens to the MVZ, to Joseph Grinnell, the first director of the MVZ.  Lamme begins, “Now about the Red Fox I will give you the dope on him,” and proceeds to say that the fox was born in the spring of 1922, on the irrigated plains of Colusa County, California.  He and his siblings belonged to a population of red foxes inhabiting the Sacramento plains, making their homes in abandoned ground squirrel holes (Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale 383).  Sadly for the fox family, the litter of nine pups was “dug out” by a Mr. John Gray, who kept a few as pets.  This seems to have not worked out as nicely as Gray had hoped, as the foxes soon “got killing the poultry.”  Gray apparently abandoned the idea of pet foxes and they came into the custody of a man named Buck Thomas, who sold two “dogs” (male foxes) to Lamme for five dollars, which Lamme evidently considered something of a steal.  Setting one aside to skin and tan as a stole for his wife, Lamme sent the other along to Grinnell at the MVZ.

Sam Lamme’s first letter to Joseph Grinnell regarding the fox specimen, dated 5 November, 1923.

Sam Lamme’s first letter to Joseph Grinnell regarding the fox specimen, dated 5 November, 1923.

The carcass was received in Berkeley on November 7th, 1923 and subsequently prepared by Joseph Dixon, who recorded the event in his notes.  He says approvingly, “This animal was very fat and in excellent condition.” Dixon also notes that the stomach contained duck feathers, of unknown species.  The scientists of the MVZ were quite excited to discover the presence of the Sacramento Valley population of red foxes, which, although known to the local inhabitants, were evidently a surprise to Grinnell.  He wrote several letters to Lamme after that, begging for more specimens, preferably older, and dispatched in such a way as to not inflict the kind of damage seen on the skull of the first fox (the bullet hole is rather prominent).  Dixon and Grinnell were anxious to study more specimens in order to determine what the normally montane species was doing in the plains of Northern California. They soon formulated an explanation for deviant population, a hypothesis that will be explained in a subsequent blog post.

References

The Code Online. London: International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 2012. Web. July 22, 2014.

Grinnell, Joseph, Joseph Scattergood Dixon, Jean Myron Linsdale.  Fur-bearing Mammals of California: Their Natural History, Systematic Status, and Relations to Man. Vol. 2. Berkeley: U of California P, 1937. Print.

Lamme, Sam (1916-1929), Museum of Vertebrate Zoology historical correspondence, MVZA.MSS.0117, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology Archives, University of California, Berkeley.

Volume 597, Section 2, page 32, Joseph S. Dixon Papers, MVZA.MSS.0079, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology Archives, University of California, Berkeley.

Related Links:

The Arctos specimen record

 

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Photographic Equipment, History and the MVZ

Written by John Hickman, Archival Volunteer

Recently I was tasked with cataloging a collection of old photographic equipment that found its way to the archival storage shelves of the MVZ. Being from the ‘pre-digital’ age, what I found was an amazing collection of photographic tools that had undoubtedly been used over the years to capture a wide variety of images supporting MVZ research, description and daily life (See MVZ Archival Image Search). In addition to the ties to the work of the MVZ, these tools also provide a view of the advances in photography through the 20th century.

Working through this collection was also personally interesting because many of the various pieces of equipment were items that were familiar to me due to my own photographic interests. But there were others that I could only guess at how they would be used, which led me to some interesting discoveries. These days, with digital cameras everywhere, we forget the challenges faced by photographers, even up into the 1990s, when you had to have film available, take your photo with crossed fingers, and wait for the film to be developed before you knew if you’d been successful in capturing your subject.

Here are some examples of interesting equipment now catalogued in the MVZ archive:

  • A Nikon F Series camera. Introduced in March 1959, the F immediately became Nikon’s best seller due to its rugged body, extensive lineup of interchangeable lenses and wide variety of accessories.
Nikon F Series, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Nikon F Series, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

  • A Camera Lucida. A clever device that assists a sketch artist by displaying a traceable image onto the surface on which the artist is drawing. The artist sees both subject and drawing surface simultaneously, allowing the artist to duplicate key points of the subject on the drawing surface. A tremendous tool for creating realistic drawings of the natural world.
Camera Lucida in case, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Camera Lucida in case, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

  • A Cine-Kodak Special movie camera in its original case, with manual. The Cine-Kodak Special was introduced in 1933 for advanced amateur and semi-professional work, and quickly became popular with professionals for its vast range of capabilities. A decal on the case exterior noted with Robert Stebbins as passenger to Plymouth, England sailing July 2nd, 1958.
Cine-Kodak Special Movie Camera in case, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Cine-Kodak Special Movie Camera in case, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

  • An Eastman-Kodak Kodascope K-50 Movie projector, a classic old style reel projector first manufactured in 1933. The original case contains the reels and even an oil can for keeping the projector well lubed.
Eastman-Kodak Movie Projector, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Eastman-Kodak Movie Projector, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

  • A Gossen Lunasix exposure meter in its original moulded leather case. Built in Germany, these devices were indispensable to film photographers who had to get the exposure just right, and didn’t have the luxury of immediately viewing their pictures as we do now with digital cameras.
Gossen Lunasix Exposure Meter, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Gossen Lunasix Exposure Meter, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

  • A Konica FS-1 camera. Introduced in 1979, it was the first 35mm SLR  equipped with a built-in motor drive for film transport, which allowed a sequence of images to be captured.
Konica FS-1 Camera, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

Konica FS-1 Camera, MVZ, July 9, 2014, by John Hickman.

It doesn’t take much imagination to understand how useful these tools were to field researchers and scientists of the MVZ. Its exciting to consider that without doubt images that we’ve seen on display in the MVZ and in various texts were captured using these tools. What a history!

Related Links:

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/mvz.html

http://mvz.berkeley.edu/archives_index.php

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