Joseph Grinnell Lecture Series

Today, Professor Jim McGuire gave the introductory lecture to IB104. Over 75 years ago, Joseph Grinnell was teaching Zoology 113, the predecessor to IB104. The MVZ Archives has a rich collection surrounding this storied course including Joseph Grinnell’s lecture series for Zoology 113. This series is comprised of an entire year’s worth of lectures. And these are no ordinary lecture notes. They are sprinkled with Grinnell’s ideas on various concepts, detailed listings of maps, specimens and photos used during lectures, lab assignments, and announcements to give. Like all things in Archives, it’s fascinating to observe what has changed, and more interestingly, what hasn’t. I hope you enjoy Grinnell’s Introductory Lecture notes from January 18, 1938 and his announcement regarding Saturday field trips.

Introduction to Zool 113

Introduction to Zool 113

Announcement for Saturday field trips


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The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology Receives an Institute of Museum and Library Services Museums for America Collections Stewardship Grant!

The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Archives at the University of California, Berkeley is excited to announce that we have received a Museums for America Collections Stewardship grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services for our project “Strategic Stewardship for Sustaining the Archives of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology,” federal award identification number MA-30-15-0452-15. We have received $147,095 in funding for the October 01, 2015 – August 31, 2017 performance period.

The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology requested funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services this August in order to address long term needs for the housing, preservation, and environmental controls of the archival collections. The archival collections date beyond the 106 years of research conducted at the museum and include detailed field notes and annotated maps from over 300 scientists and students, several thousand pages of correspondence, rare books, original artwork used in seminal publications, and photographic documentation of field sites, specimens, and animal observations. The “Strategic Stewardship for Sustaining the Archives of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology” project arose after having identified immediate and long term preservation challenges for the collections.

The grant provided through the Institute of Museum and Library Services Museums for America Program will fund the following stewardship activities: 1) install compactors for long term storage and security of archival materials; 2) install an HVAC system to regulate temperature and humidity in the archival storage room; 3) rehouse the Historical Correspondence collection in acid-free folders and record storage boxes; 4) rehouse the Historic Photo collection in acid-free enclosures and record storage boxes; 5) rehouse the glass plate negatives in dedicated boxes with proper supports; 6) rehouse the MVZ rare books in proper enclosures; and 7) provide training in basic conservation of artwork. This comprehensive project will ensure the preservation of the museum’s unique archival collections and address the housing needs of the museum’s most valuable materials. By preserving these collections, we ensure their access to the many staff, faculty, students, and outside researchers who utilize their invaluable data today for tomorrow’s scientific discoveries.

Information about this project is taken from the Institute of Museum and Library Services Museums for America Collections Stewardship Grant Abstract, written by Carla Cicero, Christina Fidler, and Michelle Koo.


The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s 123,000 libraries and 35,000 museums. Our mission is to inspire libraries and museums to advance innovation, lifelong learning, and cultural and civic engagement. Our grant making, policy development, and research help libraries and museums deliver valuable services that make it possible for communities and individuals to thrive. To learn more, visit and follow IMLS on Facebook and Twitter.

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From the Field: Western Deserts

The archives at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology contribute more to modern research projects than one might originally be led to believe.

More than 100 years ago, Joseph Grinnell began his career as the founding Director of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology with the vision to document and collect vertebrates across the Western states, resulting in a remarkable capture of early 20th century biodiversity. In addition to making vertebrate collections, extensive field notes and photographs also served to document diversity of the time. The Grinnell Resurvey Project seeks to continue Grinnell’s vision by extensively resurveying the current diversity at the sites he and his colleagues examined years ago. By documenting changes in communities and relative abundance of species, as well as developing predictive models of how vertebrates will respond to continuing change, MVZ ultimately hopes to increase understanding of long-term dynamics of distribution of vertebrates.

The Grinnell Resurvey Project is currently focusing its efforts on the Western Deserts. Over the last 50 years, this region has experienced a large increase in average annual temperature and climatic extremes, increasing desert species chance of mortality due to overheating and evaporative water loss. The project seeks to quantify the effects of climate and land-use change on desert species and communities by resurveying birds and mammals at 105 sites different desert sites that were once sampled by Joseph Grinnell and colleagues in the early 20th century. Scientists contributing to this project are making use of the field notes and images at the MVZ Archives that can provide clues to diversity on a ecosystem and landscape level that the vertebrate collections might not otherwise show. Check out some of these images from the field and find more at

Joshua Trees (10 May 1939)
North America, United States, California, San Bernardino County: 1 mi S Barnwell, New York Mts.
created by agent Annie M. Alexander

Images of landscapes can help researchers compare abiotic changes in the environment from Grinnell’s time to now.

Old coal kiln – Pinyon was used for material to make charcoal (28 May 1917)
North America, United States, California, Inyo County: Wildrose Canyon, Panamint Mts., Death Valley National Monument
created by agent Joseph S. Dixon

While most collecting sites were relatively removed from human infrastructure, so areas did have traces of human influence. Photos from Grinnell’s time can indicate how land use may have changed in the last century.

Female Costa Hummer alighting on nest

Female Costa Hummer alighting on nest (9 May 1917)
North America, United States, California, Inyo County: Hanaupah Canyon, Panamint Mts., Death Valley National Monument
created by agent Joseph S. Dixon

Photographs can document movement in ways that the collections at MVZ cannot. Some photographers also provide clues to how species may interact with both abiotic and biotic components of the environment.

Kit fox - alive

Kit fox – alive (17 April 1917)
North America, United States, California, Inyo County: Triangle Spring, Death Valley National Monument
created by agent Joseph S. Dixon

Hyla arenicolor

Hyla arenicolor (12 October 1953)
North America, United States, California, San Bernardino County: Indian Cove, Joshua Tree National Monument
created by agent Robert C. Stebbins

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Charles Aiken

Written by Steve Ruskin, a Colorado-based historian and writer. Steve holds a PhD in History and Philosophy of Science from the University of Notre Dame.

In July of 2014 I had the pleasure of corresponding with Christina Fidler of the MVZ archives. I was completing an article for the journal Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, published by the University of California Press. The article, “The Business of Natural History: Charles Aiken, Colorado Ornithology, and the Role of the Professional Collector,” was recently published in issue 45(3).

Charles Aiken (1850–1936) was a naturalist based in Colorado Springs, Colorado, and was an important American ornithologist at the end of the nineteenth century and into the first part of the twentieth. His bird collection, including many thousands of specimens of birds of the American West (many of which he collected himself), became one of the definitive North American bird collections. He sold specimens to major museums and his bird (and some animal) specimens are still part of the collections of places like the Smithsonian, the American Museum of Natural History, and the University of California’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. The bulk of Aiken’s collection is housed in the University of Colorado’s Museum of Natural History.

To facilitate their work and research, naturalists in the nineteenth century had a habit of sending each other specimens through the mail. Sometimes this was to have the specimen identified by an expert. Other times this was to trade one specimen for another in a network of exchange, which furthered the advancement of knowledge of natural history among the discipline’s practitioners.

I mention all of this because I found an interesting correlation between Aiken’s selling and sharing of specimens with museums like the MVZ, and my own correspondence with Christina (who was a real joy to work with, by the way). Christina was sending me scans of correspondence between Aiken and Joseph Grinnell, the MVZ’s first director. In the process, Christina also located some highly relevant correspondence that I was not aware of, between Grinnell and another Colorado Springs naturalist, Edward Warren, who was a colleague of Aiken.

In April 1927, Grinnell had sent Aiken nineteen specimens of junco, a small North American bird, for Aiken to study. Aiken was an expert on the junco; one sub-species of that bird was even named after him. Anyway, Aiken held onto the MVZ’s junco specimens for over a year, and Grinnell was anxious to have them back. He wrote Aiken a few times, but to no avail. So, in desperation, Grinnell wrote to Warren confidentially, asking if Warren would be so kind as to “stimulate the situation” and see if he could get Aiken to return the junco specimens as soon as possible.

Some of the juncos in question

Some of the juncos in question

Warren did what he could, wandering over to Aiken’s natural history dealership one crisp October morning and gently reminding Aiken that it was about time to send the specimens back to the MVZ. Warren then wrote to Grinnell that Aiken’s shop “is a mighty poor place.” He found insect larva crawling in some specimens (not, apparently, any MVZ material) and other specimens with probable smoke damage, because Aiken “had a fire … last spring and it is wonder the loss was not greater than it was.” Aiken was nearly 80 years old at that point, stubborn and forgetful, and it took more letters and a few telegrams from Grinnell to finally get the specimens returned to the MVZ, over a year and a half after they were first sent.

Coming full circle, this historical episode in the lives of naturalists and their sharing of specimens made me think how fortunate that I, as an historian, have access to the source material I need, even when located in distant archives, by means of technology like the internet and digital scanners, as well as research institutions like the MVZ who are still willing to share material from their collections. However, unlike the process of sharing archival material a century ago, when items were sent across the country and risked being lost, damaged, or forgotten, all Christina had to do was scan copies of letters and telegrams and email them to me, with no concern that I might somehow forget to return them, harm them, or otherwise inconvenience the MVZ.

Of course, I work with written documents, not dead animal skins, so the process is much easier. But as I was writing my article on Aiken, the contrast between the way information was shared then and now, in the early twentieth century—with its chugging trains and postal systems, and the early twenty-first—with the internet and digital imaging technologies, stuck in my mind.

Who knows how technology might continue to change the way specimens are shared? Roughly a decade ago, Harvard began their E-Type Initiative to provide visual access to important type specimens in botany and entomology. But those were to be only high-resolution images. Recently, my local library installed a number of 3D printers for public use. Considering those two projects together made me think that it might not be too much of a stretch to imagine that, if 3D printing continues to advance, it might soon be feasible that a zoologist in Australia could request a “scan” of a specimen from the MVZ and, a few hours later, find a near perfect—if plastic—replica in their 3D printer’s tray.

Now that would be cool.

In conclusion, on behalf of Colorado Springs, let me take this opportunity to offer my belated apology to the MVZ for Aiken’s inconsiderateness almost 90 years ago, and thank them for their generous assistance in my own research on 19th-century natural history.

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Catching the bug

If anything has been impressed upon me about CalDay it is that kids are smarter than we think and that they are excited about science. My greatest joy participating in CalDay is answering questions from curious would be scientists. This innate curiosity is usually a trait among the researchers I’ve been lucky enough to work with. I often ask curators how they got involved in their work. What drew them to their discipline? Their stories are similar and generally woven around the ages of 6-9. This is when children go to open fields and collect butterflies, visit creeks to look for frogs, this is when kids really begin to understand the natural world. So when I meet these young kids at CalDay, I often think to myself, “This child could very well grow up to be a biologist.”

Alden Miller field notes, age 7

Alden Miller field notes, age 7

This was on my mind when I came across some oddly typed field notes from Alden Miller. The date caught me by surprise. They were dated 1913 and I realized that these were Miller’s childhood field notes. They were undoubtedly taken under the watchful eye of his father, Loye H. Miller, who at the time was the head of the Department of Natural Sciences at the Los Angeles Normal School (later to become UCLA).

I’ve shared my favorite of his notes. It is typical of the series. What strikes me most about the story he tells is that it could be from any time period. It is a story we are all familiar with. And again, it speaks to how curiosity of the natural world is hardwired in some children.  Alden Miller went on to be the MVZ’s second director but it is interesting to think that his career can be traced back to these sunny days in southern California, chasing lizards.

I look forward to the next CalDay when I’ll have the opportunity to meet more young budding scientists.

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Frank C. Clarke

Written by Chris Gordon
Graduate Intern at Simmons College
Master’s in Library and Information Science/Archives

This semester I had the privilege of working with the Frank C. Clarke field notes and correspondence spanning a relationship with Grinnell and the MVZ of nearly four decades. The correspondence and field notes begin almost simultaneously in 1911 and 1912 and while the field expeditions only last a year, Clarke continued to provide specimens and converse with Grinnell and MVZ staff via his letters until 1934.

Clarke conducted his fieldwork in a unique way, relying on informal interviews of v565_s1_p004residents and visitors to his survey areas. Much of his notes are spent relaying conversations with hunters, forest rangers and taxidermists regarding deer populations, Clarke’s field surveys were primarily conducted as deer investigations. Rather than just notes on deer species, Clarke’s interviews range across all aspects of deer life from notes on predators to the effectiveness of hunting laws. Clarke’s method of conducting his surveys gives much insight into Clarke as a person as he often adds his own opinions along with the opinions of his interviewees. Clarke had some strong opinions on government control of predators and mentions offering bounties on things like mountain lions or coyotes a few times. I didn’t expect to see so much of a personal voice in a wildlife survey and the instances where he did offer his opinion stood out.

While most of Clarke’s notes fall under deer investigations, he ends his field notes with an investigation into a population of sick ducks on Tulare Lake. Rather than simply recording his observations, Clarke initiated a series of experiments in an attempt to find the origin of the sickness. A great window into Clarke’s scientific method, I could follow his train of thought as he compiled his initial research before moving into the proper experiments. He even had healthy ducks sent in from Hayward to keep his experiments as controlled as possible. The entire section surprised me both for being so unlike his earlier fieldwork and also for diverging from my own preconceived notion of what a wildlife survey consists of.
His correspondence I found even more fascinating for the small insights they gave into Clarke and Grinnell’s friendship. Most of the letters in the collection are strictly business involving Clarke sending animal specimens into the MVZ and Grinnell sending his confirmation on receipt. But a few times they went beyond their usual businesslike manner and some personality shines through. In one instance Clarke sends a specimen of a mole and Grinnell responds by saying “A mole burrowed its way into the Museum this morning—I guess by the postal route”. After reading through dozens of more impersonal correspondence, coming across the little joke had me almost laughing out loud for its unexpectedness. Here I was expecting to read through letters cataloging a specimen donation list and I get a little Grinnell stand up. It’s nice to think that Clarke at his family farm and Grinnell at the MVZ, separated by many miles, still get the experience of a couple of colleagues, sharing a laugh over the proverbial water cooler.

The completed Inventory to the field notes of Frank C. Clarke now available on the Online Archive of California

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Historic Events

Written by Ajay Yalamanchi, third year Integrative Biology major

After working with the Thaeler collection last semester, I had the opportunity to work with the Joseph Grinnell correspondence, letters and manuscripts written by or to Grinnell over the course of three decades. Unlike the correspondence from the Thaeler collection, the Grinnell correspondence did not reveal much about Grinnell personally since the vast majority of his correspondence was rooted in his work with the occasional letters of holiday greetings. However, it was interesting to witness what Grinnell and other accomplished academics talked about and the manner in which they addressed each other.

Roosevelt   Aside from the impeccable grammar employed, a product of the time period
they lived in, all correspondence exuded an air of utmost respect and geniality highlighted by terms of endearment such as, “My Dear….” or “Very Truly Yours.” On a side note, it was also interesting that 99% of the time the correspondents only referred to each other by last name. After reading many letters, I was also mentally referring to the various correspondents only by last name. Along with cataloging the correspondents, my task also included cataloging correspondents’ institutions and origin of their correspondence, the various species mentioned, other related people mentioned, and localities mentioned.

While reading through a letter written to Grinnell by Harry Swarth on October 15, 1912, I came across a mention of President Theodore Roosevelt! Swarth informed Grinnell that “Roosevelt was shot and wounded last night at a political meeting, so Taylor just tells me, but went on with his speech anyway!” I was excited when I read this because sometimes I forget that Grinnell and his correspondents existed in the same time period and world as Roosevelt. Reading through the correspondence, it is easy to get lost in the world of academia and not consider what else was happening during that same time period. Although I know what happened when Roosevelt was shot from prior American history classes, I did not consciously make the connection that the MVZ/Grinnell sphere of existence was occurring simultaneously with other contemporary important events until I read Swarth’s letter to Grinnell. In a way, Swarth’s mention of this historical event took the metaphorical blinders off of my eyes, which made me consider what else was happening during that time period, what life was like, and what the world was like. I enjoyed finding this connection between two unrelated topics, and hope that there are more of these interesting “easter eggs” hidden in the collection!

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